Biochemistry, Electron Transport Chain - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf

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2023-03-15 03:00:08

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The electron transport chain is a series of four protein complexes that couple redox reactions, creating an electrochemical gradient that leads to the creation of ATP in a complete system named oxidative phosphorylation. It occurs in mitochondria in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis. In the former, the electrons come from breaking down organic molecules, and energy is released. In the latter, the electrons enter the chain after being excited by light, and the energy released is used to build carbohydrates.

Aerobic cellular respiration is made up of three parts: glycolysis, the citric acid (Krebs) cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. In glycolysis, glucose metabolizes into two molecules of pyruvate, with an output of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Each pyruvate oxidizes into acetyl CoA and an additional molecule of NADH and carbon dioxide (CO2). The acetyl CoA is then used in the citric acid cycle, which is a chain of chemical reactions that produce CO2, NADH, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), and ATP. In the final step, the three NADH and one FADH2 amassed from the previous steps are used in oxidative phosphorylation, to make water and ATP.

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