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I have made a compiler for a stack machine in Idris. It uses dependent types so it should be safe. It can be seen here: https://github.com/marouan-itu/IdrisCompiler/blob/main/IdrCompVect.idr
I think the main problem with stack machines is the fact that they access only the top two stack elements for arithmetic operations. This could have caused problems if I didn't use dependent types to make my compiler safe, because then I could have attempted to add one number which would cause run time problems. They say the following on this website: Stack Computers: 3.2 A GENERIC STACK MACHINE (cmu.edu)
"One of the problems associated with pure stack machines is that they are able to access only the top two stack elements for arithmetic operations. Therefore, some overhead instructions must be spent on preparing operands to be consumed by other operations. Of course, it should be said that some register-based machines also spend a large number instructions doing register-to-register moves to prepare for operations, so the question of which approach is better becomes complicated."