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When individuals suffer a loss of resources due to the actions of others, they often aim to recoup these resources directly from those responsible.
A University of Tsukuba study delves into this behavior, revealing that such negative behaviors do not just affect the immediate victim. Often, the person suffering the loss may also retaliate against an unrelated third party to compensate for their losses. The study is published in the journal PLOS ONE.
Humans are known for their remarkable propensity for cooperation compared with other species. They engage in direct reciprocity, wherein they return kindness when it is shown to them. Additionally, there is the practice of "sharing," wherein a beneficiary of cooperation pays it forward to a third party who was not involved initially.