Australia has accused China's navy of using sonar pulses in an incident in international waters that resulted in Australian divers suffering injuries.
The Australian defence minister said a Chinese warship had resorted to "unsafe and unprofessional" actions during the encounter off Japan earlier this week.
This had posed "a risk to the safety of the Australian divers, who were forced to exit the water", Defence Minister Richard Marles said in a statement on Saturday.
"Australia expects all countries, including China, to operate their militaries in a professional and safe manner," he said.
The Australian long-range frigate HMAS Toowoomba had communicated its intention to conduct diving operations on normal maritime channels, and using internationally recognised signals, the statement said.
According to the Diving Medical Advisory Committee, a London-based body, high levels of underwater sound can cause "dizziness, hearing damage or other injuries" to divers.