submited by

Style Pass

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi[note 1] (Persian: محمد بن موسى خوارزمی ; c. 780 – c. 850 ), often referred to as simply al-Khwarizmi, was a polymath who produced vastly influential Arabic-language works in mathematics, astronomy, and geography. Hailing from Khwarazm, he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the House of Wisdom in the city of Baghdad around 820 CE.

His popularizing treatise on algebra, compiled between 813–33 as Al-Jabr (The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing),[6]: 171 presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications.[7]: 14 Because al-Khwarizmi was the first person to treat algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing" (the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation),[8] he has been described as the father[9][10][11] or founder[12][13] of algebra. The English term algebra comes from the short-hand title of his aforementioned treatise (الجبر Al-Jabr , transl. "completion" or "rejoining" ).[14] His name gave rise to the English terms algorism and algorithm; the Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese terms algoritmo; and the Spanish term guarismo [15] and Portuguese term algarismo , both meaning "digit".[16]

In the 12th century, Latin-language translations of al-Khwarizmi's textbook on Indian arithmetic (Algorithmo de Numero Indorum ), which codified the various Indian numerals, introduced the decimal-based positional number system to the Western world.[17] Likewise, Al-Jabr, translated into Latin by the English scholar Robert of Chester in 1145, was used until the 16th century as the principal mathematical textbook of European universities.[18][19][20][21]

Read more en.wikipedia...