Carlism (Basque: Karlismo; Catalan: Carlisme; Galician: Carlismo; Spanish: Carlismo) is a Traditionalist and Legitimist political movement in Spain aimed at establishing an alternative branch of the Bourbon dynasty – one descended from Don Carlos, Count of Molina (1788–1855) – on the Spanish throne.
The movement was founded as a consequence of an early nineteenth-century dispute over the succession of the Spanish monarchy and widespread dissatisfaction with the Alfonsine line of the House of Bourbon, and subsequently found itself becoming a notable element of Spanish conservatism in its nineteenth-century struggle against liberalism, which repeatedly broke out into military conflicts known as the Carlist Wars.
It was at its strongest in the 1830s but experienced a revival following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, when the Spanish Empire lost its last remaining significant overseas territories of the Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico to the United States.
Carlism continued to play a notable role in the twentieth century as part of the Nationalist faction in the Spanish Civil War and the subsequently triumphant Francoist regime until the return of democracy in 1975. Carlism continues to survive as a minor party: