Overseas Indians (IAST: Pravāsī Bhāratīya ), officially Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) and Overseas Citizens of India (OCIs) are Indians who live outside of the Republic of India. According to the Government of India, Non-Resident Indians are citizens of India who are not living in the country, while the term People of Indian Origin are people of Indian birth or ancestry who are not citizens of India, but are citizens of other nations and may additionally have Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI), with those having the OCI status known as Overseas Citizens of India. According to a Ministry of External Affairs report, there are 32 million NRIs and OCIs residing outside India and overseas Indians comprise the world's largest overseas diaspora. Every year 2.5 million (25 lakhs) Indians migrate overseas, which is the highest annual number of migrants in the world.
The diaspora has led to politicians of Indian ancestry becoming leaders of the countries of their residence. This list includes full-ethnic Indian heads of states and governments such as Basdeo Panday, Kamla Persad-Bissessar, and Noor Hassanali of Trinidad and Tobago, Cheddi Jagan, Donald Ramotar, Bharrat Jagdeo, Moses Nagamootoo, and Irfaan Ali of Guyana, Chan Santokhi, Ramsewak Shankar, Pretaap Radhakishun, and Fred Ramdat Misier of Suriname, Mahendra Chaudhry of Fiji, Pravind Jugnauth, Prithvirajsing Roopun, Anerood Jugnauth, Kailash Purryag, Ameenah Gurib-Fakim, Navin Ramgoolam, Veerasamy Ringadoo, and Seewoosagur Ramgoolam of Mauritius, Devan Nair and S. R. Nathan of Singapore, and Rishi Sunak of U.K. and those of mixed heritage, such as Mahathir Mohamad of Malaysia, António Costa and Alfredo Nobre da Costa of Portugal, Leo Varadkar of Ireland, Halimah Yacob of Singapore, and Wavel Ramkalawan of Seychelles.