Overseas Chinese (simplified Chinese: 海外华人 / 海外中国人 ; traditional Chinese: 海外華人 / 海外中國人 ; pinyin: Hǎiwài Huárén / Hǎiwài Zhōngguórén ) refers to people of Chinese birth or ethnicity who reside outside Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. As of 2011, there were over 40.3 million overseas Chinese.
Huáqiáo (simplified Chinese: 华侨 ; traditional Chinese: 華僑 ) or Hoan-kheh (Chinese: 番客 ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hoan-kheh ) in Hokkien, refers to people of Chinese citizenship residing outside of either the PRC or ROC (Taiwan). The government of China realized that the overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment and a bridge to overseas knowledge; thus, it began to recognize the use of the term Huaqiao.
Ching-Sue Kuik renders huáqiáo in English as "the Chinese sojourner" and writes that the term is "used to disseminate, reinforce, and perpetuate a monolithic and essentialist Chinese identity" by both the PRC and the ROC.