Stacks and Queues are commonly used data structures for extensive computer science and software development which depict a clear horizon for efficient data management, algorithm design, and task scheduling.
A stack is a data structure where the most recently added element can be accessed and removed. Think of stacks of nested coffee cups. You'll notice to access or remove the last coffee cup, you need to remove others from the top. This is where the principle of LIFO( Last In, First out) comes in. The LIFO principle dictates that the last element added to a stack would be the first to be removed when accessing the stacks. Its time complexity is denoted by a constant O(1). This illustration depicts a stack of cups.
Stacks are extensively used in memory management. For instance, in the local storage of application data, stacks efficiently store and manage data. Additionally, it is also used for undo features in software application, the undo features of an application often relies on stacks to track and update user actions.
Queues are data structures that allow the First In, First Out (FIFO) principle. The FIFO principle dictates that the element that is added first is the one to be removed first. Queues share similar methods with Stack but the main distinction lies in the order or pattern of removal. Stack uses the Last In, First Out (LIFO) principle while queues make use of the First In, First Out (FIFO) principle to manage elements in a specific data structure.