Frontiers in Neuroscience
Brain machine interfaces (BMIs), or brain computer interfaces (BCIs), are devices that act as a medium for communications between the brain and the computer. It is an emerging field with numerous applications in domains of prosthetic devices, robotics, communication technology, gaming, education, and security. It is noted in such a multidisciplinary field, many reviews have surveyed on various focused subfields of interest, such as neural signaling, microelectrode fabrication, and signal classification algorithms. A unified review is lacking to cover and link all the relevant areas in this field. Herein, this review intends to connect on the relevant areas that circumscribe BMIs to present a unified script that may help enhance our understanding of BMIs. Specifically, this article discusses signal generation within the cortex, signal acquisition using invasive, noninvasive, or hybrid techniques, and the signal processing domain. The latest development is surveyed in this field, particularly in the last decade, with discussions regarding the challenges and possible solutions to allow swift disruption of BMI products in the commercial market.