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We humans, on the other hand, communicate numbers via the decimal system. This system uses digits from 0 to 9 along with plus and minus signs (+ and -) to denote positive or negative numbers.

Since computers can use only two digits – 0 and 1 – engineers and mathematicians back in the day designed clever techniques for representing negative numbers and for doing arithmetic with them. Let's explore the beauty of those techniques.

For images, text, videos and numbers, we have encoding schemes that decide how these stuff will get to 0s and 1s. For example, ASCII and Unicode for text.

The software programs we code get to 0s and 1s via compilers and assemblers. Those set of 0s and 1s known as machine code (or machine instruction) are first stored in our computer's main memory (RAM) before the processor can execute them.

_The fetch decode execute cycle architected by Sir John von Neumann. Every digital computer follows this cycle to run machine code._

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