The Scripts/ directory contains .Rmd files that generate the graphics shown below. It requires R, RStudio, and the rmarkdown package.
This has to be the first one. Means separation plots are some of the most common in scientific publications. We have two or more groups, which contains multiple observations; they may have different means, variances, and distributions. The task of the visualization is to show the means and the spread (dispersion) of the data.
In this example, two groups have similar means and standard deviations, but quite different distributions. Are they really "the same"? Just don't use bar plot for means separation, or at least check a couple things before settling down on a bar plot.
It's worth mentioning that I was inspired by many researchers who have tweeted on the limitation of bar graphs. Here is a pulication: Weissgerber et al., 2015, PLOS Biology.
This is quite common in the literature as well, but unfortunately, violin plots (or any sort of smoothed distribution curves) make no sense for small n.