You'll know this happens because node will hard crash, exiting silently without any kind of real stack trace, perhaps printing just segmentation fault (core dumped).
A segmentation fault occurs when a program attempts to access a memory location that it is not allowed to access, or attempts to access a memory location in a way that is not allowed (for example, attempting to write to a read-only location, or to overwrite part of the operating system). - wikipedia.org/wiki/Segmentation_fault
In practice, a segfault occurs when your program breaks some fundamental rule set by the operating system. In that case, the operating system sends your process a signal (SIGSEGV on Mac & Linux, STATUS_ACCESS_VIOLATION on Windows), and typically the process shuts down immediately.