Most energy in industry is used to provide heat. The most efficient way to decarbonize heat is to use heat pumps powered by green electricity. Which leads to the question: What temperatures can they achieve?
Industrial heat is a major consumer of fossil fuels. Estimates are that around two-thirds of the energy used in industrial applications is used to generate heat.
Industrial heat applications are diverse, and so are the temperatures - from relatively low-temperature use cases like drying food to extremely high temperatures required to melt metals or produce cement.
Electrification of heat will play a major role in the decarbonization of industrial heat. But different needs will require different electric heating technologies.
Heat pumps are a particularly efficient way to generate heat from electricity. They can achieve something that sounds like it violates the laws of physics: They can provide more energy than they consume.
Of course, no technology can violate the laws of thermodynamics. Heat pumps achieve their efficiency by taking energy from a lower temperature source. In the simplest case, this can be outside air. By compressing a heat carrier, they increase the energy per volume and therefore the temperature.