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Cryptographic hash functions are also known as one-way functions because given an input x, one can easily compute its hashed value f(x), but it is impractical to recover x from knowing f(x).

However, if we know that x comes from a small universe of possible values, our one-way function can effectively become a two-way function, i.e. it may be possible to start with f(x) and recover x using a rainbow table attack.

It’s possible to defend against a rainbow attack yet still leak information about the probability distribution of values of x given f(x).

For privacy protection, hashing is better than not hashing. Keyed hashing is better than unkeyed hashing. But even keyed hashing can leak information.

Suppose a data set contains SHA-256 hashed values of US Social Security Numbers (SSNs). Since SSNs have 10 digits, there are 10 billion possible SSNs. It would be possible to hash all possible SSNs and create a lookup table, known as a rainbow table. There are three things that make the rainbow table attack possible in this example:

A way to alter (2) is to use a keyed hash algorithm. For example, if we XOR the SSNs with a key before applying SHA-256, an attacker cannot construct a rainbow table without knowing the key. The attacker may know the core hash algorithm we are using, but they do not know the entire algorithm because the key is part of the algorithm.

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