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Gait speed distributions for individual walk conditions (usual, dual task, and maximum) are depicted as histograms. Scatterplots illustrate the pairwise correlations between individual walk conditions. The blue lines are linear regression lines.

A-C, The mean pace of aging at age 45 years (years of physiological change per chronological year) (A), mean facial age at age 45 years (z score; mean = 0, SD = 1) (B), and mean brain health at age 3 years (z score; mean = 0, SD = 1) (C) by gait speed quintiles at age 45 years are shown. Generalized additive models are shown in eFigure 2 in the Supplement. D, The childhood-to-adulthood cognitive decline by gait speed quintiles is also shown. Gait speed quintiles are defined as follows: quintile 1, less than 1.32 m/s (181 participants); quintile 2, 1.32 to 1.43 m/s (181 participants); quintile 3, 1.44 to 1.52 m/s (181 participants); quintile 4, 1.53 to 1.63 m/s (181 participants); and quintile 5, greater than 1.63 m/s (180 participants). Error bars indicate standard error.

Brain structure parameters shown include total brain volume (A), mean cortical thickness (B), total surface area (C), and log-transformed white matter hyperintensities (D). The left-hand scatterplots show associations between brain structure parameters and IQ at age 45 years. The right-hand scatterplots show associations between brain structure parameters and composite gait speed at age 45 years. β values represent standardized regression coefficients with 95% CIs adjusted for sex.

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